Currently, the rate of diabetes in our country is tending to be younger. The disease has a significant impact on health, daily life and especially causes many serious complications. So what is diabetes, is it scary? I will share with you all the relevant information in this Diabetes Handbook. Let’s go!
1. What is diabetes?
After eating, the carbohydrates from the meal will be converted into a type of glucose. This type of sugar is absorbed in the intestines and dissolves into the bloodstream. During this time, the pancreas will secrete a hormone called insulin, which works to bring glucose into the cells to provide energy for the body.
If there is a problem with insulin’s ability to work or the amount of glucose in the body increases too much, it can’t respond to insulin. At that time, an amount of sugar will not be converted into an energy source for the body and is left in excess in the blood. The condition where the sugar level exceeds the allowable rate in the blood is called Diabetes.
Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. The disease is mainly caused by a lack of insulin production by the pancreas or a reduced ability of this hormone to work in the body, resulting in high blood sugar levels.
This disease is one of the causes leading to other serious diseases such as kidney failure, blindness, cerebrovascular accident, coronary heart disease, etc – diabetes handbook.
2. What type of diabetes do you have?
As mentioned to the diabetes handbook, diabetes consists of two main types:
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is a life-threatening disease caused by abnormal β-cells that reduce insulin secretion or do not secrete insulin. The majority of the disease occurs in children and young people (under 20 years of age) accounts for about 5 – 10% of all people with diabetes. In this form of the disease, symptoms often come on suddenly and progress quickly, so the disease can be recognized.
Causes: The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Doctors believe that the cause of the disease is mainly genetic combined with environmental factors.
You are at high risk if your mother or brother or sister has type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes
This is the most common form of the disease, usually seen in people over 40 years old and who tend to be younger. The number of cases in this form accounts for about 90-95% of all patients with diabetes. The disease does not show any physical symptoms, so it is difficult to detect.
In addition to the two main types of disease above, there is another form of the disease that only occurs in pregnant women – the diabetes handbook.
This is an abnormal condition in carbohydrate metabolism. Gestational diabetes will go away soon after giving birth. If not treated in time, the disease can cause bad effects, affecting both mother and baby.
Cause: In pregnant women, the placenta makes hormones to help maintain the pregnancy. These hormones make cells more resistant to insulin. When the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, the amount of sugar that builds up in the blood increases leading to gestational diabetes – the diabetes handbook
3. Symptoms to recognize the disease
The diabetes handbook indicates some typical symptoms of the disease:
- Polyuria: High blood glucose levels lead to high levels of glucose in the first urine, which exceeds the threshold for absorption by the kidneys. As a result, a portion of glucose is not reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, resulting in the presence of sugar in the urine. At the same time, due to the high amount of sugar in the urine, increases urine osmolality. So water diffuses into the urine and increases urine volume, causing polyuria. In children, nocturnal enuresis may be due to polyuria.
- Drink a lot: When the body is dehydrated, it will stimulate the hypothalamus to cause a feeling of thirst, causing the patient to drink water continuously.
- Eat a lot: Because the body cannot use sugar for energy, the patient will feel hungry quickly, stimulating to eat more.
- Skinny: Although eating more than usual, but because the body cannot use glucose for energy, it must increase lipid and protein degradation to compensate. Therefore, the patient is often emaciated and pale.
In addition to the symptoms mentioned above in the diabetes handbook, the patient also has symptoms such as dry mouth, nausea, blurred vision, slow healing of ulcers, etc. To know for sure if you have the disease, you should see a doctor and perform tests.
4. Possible Complications
The longer a person has diabetes, the harder it is to control blood sugar. At this point, the risk of complications increases, they develop gradually, if severe, can be life-threatening.
The diabetes handbook indicates some possible complications for the patient are:
- Cardiovascular disease: When you have diabetes, you have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack, atherosclerosis, stroke, etc.
- Nerve damage: Excess sugar in the blood damages the small blood vessels that nourish nerves, especially in the legs. As a result, the patient often has an itching, numbness, or pain sensation in the fingertips or toes that spread over time. If left for a long time, the patient may lose sensation. In addition, when the nerves are damaged in the digestive system, it can cause vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.
- Kidney damage: Diabetes can cause serious damage to the organs of the kidneys. In severe cases, the patient may have kidney failure or end-stage kidney disease requiring dialysis.
- Eye damage: With this condition, the blood vessels of the retina can be damaged, and potentially other serious vision problems: cataracts, glaucoma, etc.
- Alzheimer’s Disease: People with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.
Possible complications during pregnancy:
- The mother can have pre-eclampsia with symptoms such as high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine, and swollen legs. Not only that, but pregnant women are also at risk of developing this disease in the next pregnancy, and in old age can develop diabetes, typically type 2 diabetes.
- The fetus may grow faster for its age and be at risk of type 2 diabetes in the future. If the mother does not receive treatment, the baby can die before or after birth.
Well, you don’t worry, there’s a cure. Just keep reading part 5 of the diabetes handbook to get the treatment methods.
5. Diabetes treatment
As advised in the diabetes handbook, when you find out that you have diabetes, you need to see a doctor for timely examination and treatment, to avoid dangerous complications. If you have type 1 diabetes, your body doesn’t make insulin on its own so you need to take it for the rest of your life. If you have type 2 diabetes, you need to pay special attention to your diet and exercise regularly. At the same time, you can also use oral medications or injections of insulin, metformin to control blood sugar.
For the disease not to get worse, the patient should eat a lot of foods with low sugar content, eat a lot of green vegetables, eat small meals. exercise regularly.
When you have diabetes, the diabetes handbook indicates you should limit your intake of these foods:
- Red meats, animal organs, egg yolks, etc.
- Sweet confectionery, carbonated soft drinks, milk, beer, and alcoholic beverages.
- Starch: rice, vermicelli, pho,…
Diabetes can leave many dangerous complications. Therefore, if you suspect you have this disease, you should consult a doctor for examination and timely treatment. In addition, a reasonable, scientific diet, regular exercise will help you have good health, help prevent disease better.
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